Google


??????   ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? > ????????? ???????? > ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????

?????????

????? ??
 
????? ??????? ????? ??? ???????
???? 11-11-2011, 03:07 PM   #1
 
?????? ??????? ????
 
????? ???????: Feb 2010
??????: ???????
?????????: 154
???? ????? ???????: 5
???? is on a distinguished road
??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ( ???????? - ??????? - ??????? - ????????? - ??????????? )

??? ??????? ????????? Bacterial diseases

1- ??? ????? ?????? Ring Rot
?????? ?????? corynebacterium sepedonicum
??????? ???????
- ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ?????
- ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??????
- ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????
- ???? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???????
- ??????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????
???? ?????
- ???????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????
- ???? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ???????
- ???? ?????? ?? ???? ??????
????????
- ??????? ????? ?? ???? ???
- ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ????
- ????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ???????
- ??????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ?????

2- ????? ?????
Bacterial soft rot
?????? ?????? Erwinia carotovora ??????? ???????
- ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ????????
- ??????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????
- ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????????
???? ???? ??????
- ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ???????
- ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????
- ??????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????
- ?? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ????
????????
- ??? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????
- ???? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ???????
- ???? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? 3-5 ???? ????? ??? ???? 12-15 ?????? 90% ???? ????? ???? ?????
- ????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????
- ??? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??????
- ??? ??? ??????? ??? ???????
- ??????? ??? ???? 4-6 ?

3- ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? Brown rot or bacterial wilt ?????? ??????
Ralstonia solanacearum

??????? ???????

- ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????
- ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ?????
- ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ??????
- ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????????? - ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ????????
???? ?????
- ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????
- ????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????
????????
- ??????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????????
- ????? ???? ??????
- ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???????
- ??????? ????? ??????

????? common scab
?????? ?????? streptomyces scabies
??????? ???????
- ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????
- ????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????
- ????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????????
- ?????? ?????? ???? ???? PH ?? 5.5 - 8
????????
- ??? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?????
- ???????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??????
- ????? ???? ??????
- ??????? ????? ?? ????? ??????

????? : ??????? ??????? Fungal Diseases

1- ??? ?????? ???????
????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ???????
????? ?????? Colletotrichum coccodes
??????? ???????
- ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ? ???????? ??????
- ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ????
- ???? ????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ???????
- ??? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ?????
- ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????????????
- ???????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????
- ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????
?????? ???????? ????? ???????
- ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????
- ??? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???? ????? ????????
- ????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?????
????????
- ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????
- ??????? ????? ????? ?? ???????
* ??????? ???? ????? ????? 75??/100???
( ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? )

????? ????? Dry Rot
- ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ??? 60%
- ??? ????? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ??? 15%

?????? ?????? Fusarium sp.
- ???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????
- ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ???????
- ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???. ??? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????
- ????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ???? ????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ???????
- ????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ???????
???? ?????
??? ??????????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ??? Fusarium sambucinum
??? ?? ???? ????? ???? ??? F.solani
- ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????
- ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???? 2- 2.5
? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???? ???????
- ??? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????
????????
- ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ????????
- ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????
- ????? ??????? ??? ???? 3-5 ? ?????? 90%
??????? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ??????(???? ?????? ???????)
?? 700??- 1??? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???? (??????)
2-3??? /??? ????? ????? ???????
4 ??? /???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???????

3- ?????? ?????? Early Blight
????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????
?????? ??????
???? ?????? ??????? ??? Alteraria solani
??????? ???????
- ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????
- ???? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ?????
- ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?????
???? ?????
- ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????
- ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????
????????
- ??????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???????
- ????? ???? ??????
- ?? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????


????? ????? 250??/100??????

?? ??????? ?? ?? ????? 250??/100??? ???
?? ????? ????? 75 ??/100 ??? ???
?? ??????? ????? 250??/ ????

4- ?????? ???????? Late Blight
????? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???????.
?????? ??????:-
???? ?? ????? ????? Phytophthora infestans
??????? ???????:- - ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????.
- ????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???????.
- ??? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????
- ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????.
- ????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ?????.
- ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ?????
- ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???????.
???? ?????:-
- ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????.
- ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? 3-5???? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ???????? ?????. ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???????? ???????.

????????:-
- ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? - ??????? ??? ???????? ???????:-

????? 250-300?? /100??? ???

?? ??????? 250 ?? /100??? ???
?? ????? 75 ?? /100??? ???
?? ??????? 200-350??/????

5- ?????? ????????????? Verticillium Wilt?????? ?????? :

Verticillium dahlia

??????? ???????:
- ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??????.
- ????? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ?????.
- ??? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? .. ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????.
- ????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ???????.

???? ?????:
- ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????.
- ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????.
- ????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????.

????????:-
- ???????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???? ?? ??? ???????.
- ???????? ?? ????? ???? ????.
- ????? ????? ?????? .
- ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???:
?- ????? ?????? 42% .

6- ?????? ?????????? Rhizoctonia canker?????? ??????
Rhizoctonia Solani

??????? ???????:
- ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ... ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????.
- ????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???????.
- ????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?????.
???? ?????:
- ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ????????.
- ????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????
- ??? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?? ???????.

????????:
1- ??????? ????? ?? ???? ?????. 2- ??????? ???? ??? ?? ????? 500??/???? ????? ?? ??? ????.

7- ?????? ?????? Sliver scurf
?? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????. ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????.

?????? ??????
???? ??? ?????
Helminthosporium solani

??????? ???????
- ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???????
- ??????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???? ????? ? ?? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ????
- ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????.
- ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????.
- ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????.

???? ?????
- ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??????.
- ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ??????.
- ?? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? 90% ????? ??????? ???? ?? 3 ??.

????????:
- ??????? ????? ????? ?? ?????.
- ????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ?????.
- ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?? 3 ??- 5 ??.


?????? ??????? ??? ???????
???? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? :
1- ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????
- ??????? ??????? wireworms
- ??????? ??????? ??????? while grubs
- ??????? ????????? flea beetles

2- ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????
- ????? ??????? Colorado potato beetle
- ?????? ??????? Cut worms
- ?????? ??????? European borer
- ?? ????? ?????? Green peach aphids
- ?????? ??????? Potato leaf hoppers
- ???? Bugs
- ??????? ??????? white flies

1- ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ??????

?- ??????? ??????? wireworms
????? ?????? Conoderus falli
??? ?????? : ????? ??? ???? ????? 4-5 ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ???????. ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???????
- ??? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????. ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ? ? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??? ? ??? ??? ??? ???
- ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? pupae (?????)
- ??????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ??????
- ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???????

????????
?????? ?????? ????? 50??/100 ??? ???

?- ??????? ??????? ??????? white grubs
* ????? ????? ??? ??? ???C ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? 6 ????
* ?????? ??????? ????? ????? 1 ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?????

?????? Phyllopaga spp.
???? ?????? ???????? ???????
* ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???????
* ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ??????
????????
?? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????

??????? ????? 300??/????
?? ?????? ????? 50?? /100??????
?- ??????? ?????????
Flea beetles
*???? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???????
systena elnogata - systena blanda
* ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???????
* ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ????? (???? ???? ?????) ?? ?????? ? ?? ???? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???? ???? 18-30??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? 15???
* ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ??????
* ???? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???? ??????
????????
* ??????? ????? ??????
* ?????? ???????

2- ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????:

1- ?????? ??????? Colorado potato beetle
????? ?????? Leptinotarsa decemlineata
* ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?????.
* ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ??????.
* ??? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????.
* ???? ????? ???? 4-14??? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ???? (4) ????? ??????.
* ??????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ?? ???? 2-3?????? ???? ???? ????? ?????.
??????? ??????? Disease symptoms
* ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???????.
* ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????.
????????:
* ????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ??????.
* ??????? ???????? ????? 25??/100??? ???
* (?????? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????)

2- ?????? ???????
Cutworms
????? ?????? Agrotis ipsilon
??????? ???????:
* ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????
* ??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ???????
????????:

???????

?????? ????? 50??/??? ???
?????? ????? 50??/??? ???
??????? ????? 300??/????

3- ?????? ??????? European borer
????? ?????? Ostrinia nubilalis
* ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ???????.
* ?????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????.
* ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????.

???? ??????.. ???????? ??????? Live cycle and disease symptoms
* ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ???? ??????.
* ?????? ??? ????? 15-35???? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ???? 9 ???? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????.
* ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??5-7 ????.
* ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????.
* ???? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???????.
????????:
- ??????? ?????? ????? 50??/??????

4- ???? - ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? Aphids-green peach on potato
????? ?????? Myzus persicae
??? ??????:
* ???? ????????? ???? ???? ???????????????? ?????? ??? ?????? 1-2????
* ?????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?????
????? ???? ????? ??? ??????:
*???? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????.
*????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? Y??? ???????.
????????:
?????? 375??/100??????

???????? 25??/100??????
????? 50??/100??????
??????? 300??/????

5- ?????? ??????? Potato leafhoppers
????? ?????? Empoasca fabae
??? ??????:
* ?? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????
* ??????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??? ??? ??????. ??????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????
* ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????
* ???? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????
* ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????????

????????
?????? ????? 50?? /100???

6- ???? ??? ??????? Bugs on Potato
????? ?????? Nysius raphanus
??? ??????
* ???? ????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ???????
???????
?????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ???????

????????
???????? 25??/100??????

7- ??????? ???????
whit flies
??? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????
????? ?????? Bemisia argentifolii
???????
* ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????
* ???? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????????
????????

?????? 375??/100??? ???

??????? 300??/100??? ???
?????? 50??/100??? ???
???????? 25??/100??? ???
?????? 100??/100??? ???

??????? ??????????? ??? ????? ???????...
???????? Greening
- ???? ??? ????? ?????????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??????.
- ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????????? Solanine ????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ... ????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????.
- ??? ??????? ???? ????? ?????.... ????? ????? ???????
- ??? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????.
??????:
??????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ???????

?- ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????
Hollow heart /brown center
- ???? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ???????.
- ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ???????
- ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ... ?? ????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ... ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????
??????:
- ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????
- ??????? ??? ?????? ????
- ???????? ?? ??????? ???????
- ???????? ?? ????

?- ????? ?????? Black Heart
- ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? .... ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????
- ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????
- ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ?????
??????:
- ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????
- ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????

?- ??????? Feathering
- ??????? ???? ?????? skinning ?? ???? ????? Sun scald
- ???? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????.
- ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ????????
- ??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??????
- ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???????.

??????? ????????? ???? ???? ???????
????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????.
????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? .
- ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????.
- ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ???????
???????
??????? ???????
PVY- O
???? ???? ?????? ??? ???????
PVY- C
???? ??? ???
PVY- N
???? ?????? ????? ??? ???????
- ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????.

2- ????? ?????? ????? ???????
Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV)
- ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ????.
- ?? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??????.
- ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????.
- ????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????.
- ????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????

3- ????? ??
Potato virus S (PVS)
- ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??? 20%
- ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????
- ????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????.
- ???? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????.

4- ????? ???
Potato virus X (PVX)
- ???????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ????? ... ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ???????.
- ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? Y ??????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???????
- ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????

5- ????? ?????? ???????
AFALFA Mosaic virus (AMV)

- ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ????
- ?? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???????.
- ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ????????.
- ???? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ???????.

??????? ??????????? ???? ???? ???????

1- ???????? ???? ??????
Root-Knot
?????? ??????

Meloidogyne haple
???? ????? ???????? ???????
- ?? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??????
- ????? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????
- ???? ?????????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??????.
- ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????? 1000 ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??????.
- ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ???????.
????????
- ??????? ????? ??????
- ????? ???? ??????
- ??????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????

2- ???????? ?????? Lesion Nematode
???? ?????? ?????? ... ???????? ??????? ...
- ??? ????? ?? ??????????????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????. ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ??????.
- ???? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?????? (??????) ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????????.
- ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????.
- ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ??? ??????.
- ???? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? 6000???/??? ????

????????:
- ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??????????? - ????? ???? ??????

?????? : ???? ???????









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???? 11-11-2011, 11:32 PM   #2
 
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???? 11-12-2011, 06:16 PM   #4
 
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???? 12-10-2011, 01:56 PM   #5
 
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???? ????? ???????: 5
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??????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? sabryanwar ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? 5 11-27-2011 08:48 AM
??????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? 9 04-28-2011 10:57 PM
?????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? : ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? 12 05-28-2010 09:08 PM
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